Bethlehem University Journal is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal published annually by the Office of the Dean of Research at Bethlehem University. BUJ (Bethlehem University Journal) welcomes original articles on a variety of topics from different disciplines in both Arabic and English. BUJ encourages interdisciplinary research and research methodologies that integrate contributions from multiple disciplines. BUJ also welcomes book reviews (should not exceed 1500 words) and review essays. Review essays examine a cluster of important books on a particular disciplinary or interdisciplinary topic, offering original and sustained arguments about new research developments and theoretical trends that would be of interest to our diverse readership.